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Issue 52, 2014
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Cyto and genotoxicities of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets on spermatozoa

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Abstract

Concentration-dependent cyto and genotoxicities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) sheets on spermatozoa were studied. rGO sheets with various surface chemical states were achieved using hydrazine (N2H4) hydrothermal (HT) reactions and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Although 0.1 μg mL−1 graphene could not change sperm viability and kinetic parameters, <40% and 20% of spermatozoa were viable and progressively motile, after 2 h incubation with 400 μg mL−1 GO or rGO, respectively. All the graphene nanomaterials induced concentration-dependent reductions of adenosine triphosphate and NAD+/NADH produced by spermatozoa for motility and metabolic activity. While GO, N2H4–rGO, and HT-rGO sheets caused increasing reactive oxygen species and sperm nitric oxide production, GO sheets reduced by antioxidant GTPs decreased them. Hence, physical trapping of spermatozoa by graphene (particularly GTP–rGO) is one of the important mechanisms describing the cytotoxicity, in addition to the other reactions, resulting in the inactivation and/or death of spermatozoa. Graphene genotoxicity was initiated by 1.0 μg mL−1 of N2H4–rGO and HT-rGO and 10 μg mL−1 of GO and GTP–rGO sheets. The extremely sharp edge and/or high mobility of N2H4–rGO provided easy penetration of the sheets into spermatozoa to interact with cell nuclei. In contrast, the steric effect induced by GTPs attached on rGO caused a lower genotoxicity.

Graphical abstract: Cyto and genotoxicities of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets on spermatozoa

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Publication details

The article was received on 06 Feb 2014, accepted on 28 May 2014 and first published on 29 May 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4RA01047G
Citation: RSC Adv., 2014,4, 27213-27223
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    Cyto and genotoxicities of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets on spermatozoa

    E. Hashemi, O. Akhavan, M. Shamsara, R. Rahighi, A. Esfandiar and A. R. Tayefeh, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 27213
    DOI: 10.1039/C4RA01047G

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