Electrochemiluminescence detection of chlorpromazine hydrochloride at bare and graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrodes
The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of Ru(bpy)32+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridyl) and Ru(phen)32+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) at bare and graphene oxide (GO) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes has been employed for the determination of chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CPZ). The ECL intensity increased gradually with the increasing concentration of CPZ under optimal conditions. For Ru(bpy)32+, a linear response was obtained over a CPZ concentration range of 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.0 × 10−4 mol L−1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10−8 mol L−1 at a bare GC electrode in phosphate buffer (pH = 7). The detection limit can be reduced further to 1.0 × 10−10 mol L−1 after the modification of GC electrode with GO. In the case of Ru(phen)32+, a linear response was acquired over a CPZ concentration range of 1.0 × 10−11 to 1.0 × 10−7 mol L−1, and the detection limit can be further reduced to 1.0 × 10−11 mol L−1 on the GO modified GC electrode. All these limits are much lower than those achieved with other detection methods. The proposed method was applied for the determination of spiked CPZ in human serum; the recovery was quite satisfactory with good reproducibility and stability, providing the possibility of developing an ECL detection method for CPZ.