The fabrication of robust superhydrophobic 3D porous materials is of great importance for both academic research and industrial applications. The main challenge is the poor adhesion between porous substrates and superhydrophobic coatings. In this study, a robust superhydrophobic polysiloxane layer was coated onto the surface of 3D porous polyurethane sponges through a one-step solution immersion method. The durability of the resulting sponges was investigated by repeated mechanical compressions, ultrasonication in polar solvents, and strong acid/alkali attacks. Results revealed that the superhydrophobic sponges showed excellent elasticity, high mechanical durability and good chemical stability. By combining the special wettability and high porosity, the sponges exhibited high oil-absorption capacity and high selectivity when they were employed as absorptive materials for cleaning oils on the water surface. More importantly, the superhydrophobic sponges could be reused for oil–water separation for more than 300 cycles without losing their superhydrophobicity, exhibiting the highest reusability and durability among the reported counterparts. Therefore, the present study offers a simple and low-cost strategy for large-scale fabrication of robust superhydrophobic 3D porous materials that might be applied to the cleanup of oil spills on the water surface.