As significant advancements in technology focused on Organ-on-a-chip continue, it is feasible to consider the future of Body-on-a-chip technology. With serious work being done to realize functioning artificial livers, kidneys, hearts, and lungs on chips, the next step is not only to interconnect these organs but also to consider the integration of stem cell technology to create interconnected patient-specific organs. Such a patient-specific Body-on-a-chip requires a sophisticated set of tools for micropattering cell cultures in 3D to create interconnected tissue-like organ structures. This review discusses advanced methods of the past two years in on-Chip organs, the complex 3D patterning of cultures and state-of-the-art scaffolding, and discusses some of the most relevant advancements in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) research applied to these organs and scaffolds for the future of a patient-specific Body-on-a-chip. We anticipate that such a technology would have a wide area of application, primarily benefiting drug development, chemical safety testing, and disease modeling.
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