Fill factor in organic solar cells
The fill factor (FF) is an important parameter that determines the power conversion efficiency of an organic solar cell. There are several factors that can significantly influence FF, and these factors interact with each other very intricately. Due to this reason, a deep understanding of FF is quite difficult. Based on the three fundamental elements in the solar cell equivalent circuit, namely series resistance, shunt resistance and diode, we reviews the research progress in understanding on FF in organic solar cells. Physics lying behind the often-observed undesirable S-shaped J–V curves is also summarized. This paper aims to give a brief and comprehensive summary on FF from a fundamental point of view.