The fluorinated phenylene unit is used as a building block for an all-conjugated fluorene-based alternating copolymer (PFO–TFP). The synthesis, carried out by an optimized Suzuki cross-coupling, produces an extremely high purity compound with a series of intriguing properties. Firstly, a blue-shift of the absorption and emission spectra with respect to the parent polymer is achieved. Secondly, the photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields (QYs) of the solution, as high as 68%, are surprisingly retained in the solid-state. Finally, an improved colour stability of the film with respect to unsubstituted polymers, investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and exposure to ultraviolet radiation, is observed. The PFO–TFP tested as an undoped active layer in a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) shows a highly desirable pure deep blue 405 nm electroluminescence, CIE = (0.17; 0.06) and a remarkable 5.03% external quantum efficiency, thus fulfilling the requirements for both full-colour displays and biomedical applications. To date, fluorine atom incorporation has been successfully employed in the synthesis of high-performing polymers for organic field-effect transistors and photovoltaics. We give the first unambiguous proof of its efficacy in achieving pure deep blue electroluminescence in a highly efficient and stable PLED, which is competitive with the best reported conjugated oligomer-based devices.