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Issue 29, 2012
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Enhancement of quaternary nitrogen doping of graphene oxide via chemical reduction prior to thermal annealing and an investigation of its electrochemical properties

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Abstract

A simple and efficient method to enhance the quaternary nitrogen doping (N-doping) of graphene has been demonstrated. Recent studies have shown that quaternary N in the graphene network provides more efficient electrocatalytic activity. Therefore, a novel strategy to enhance the quaternary N-doping is currently in high demand. The strategy employed in this work was to modify graphene oxide (GO) prior to thermal annealing so as to provide a more efficient structure for quaternary N doping. GO was first chemically reduced with hydrazine to substantially increase the formation of C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bonds and simultaneously decrease the atomic oxygen concentration. The reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was then annealed in the presence of NH3. Although N-doping via the replacement of oxygen is preferred, the probability of carbon being substituted with N dopants in the graphitic structure of RGO could increase due to the relatively higher content of C[double bond, length as m-dash]C when compared to the atomic oxygen concentration. In addition, due to the decreased atomic oxygen concentration, the electro-conductivity was enhanced. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of 5 mM K3Fe(CN)6 and 2 mM H2O2 were used to examine the electrochemical response of the quaternary N-maximized RGO. An improvement in electrocatalytic reduction and a higher electro-conductivity were confirmed based on an analysis of the obtained CVs.

Graphical abstract: Enhancement of quaternary nitrogen doping of graphene oxide via chemical reduction prior to thermal annealing and an investigation of its electrochemical properties

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Feb 2012, accepted on 17 May 2012 and first published on 18 May 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2JM31158E
Citation: J. Mater. Chem., 2012,22, 14756-14762
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    Enhancement of quaternary nitrogen doping of graphene oxide via chemical reduction prior to thermal annealing and an investigation of its electrochemical properties

    T. N. Huan, T. Van Khai, Y. Kang, K. B. Shim and H. Chung, J. Mater. Chem., 2012, 22, 14756
    DOI: 10.1039/C2JM31158E

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