This study builds a holistic, transparent life cycle assessment model of a variety of aqueous mineral carbonation processes using a hybrid process model and economic input–output life cycle assessment approach (hybrid EIO-LCA). The model allows for the evaluation of the tradeoffs between different reaction enhancement processes while considering the larger lifecycle impacts on energy use and material consumption. A preliminary systematic investigation of the tradeoffs inherent in mineral carbonation processes is conducted to provide guidance for the optimization of the life-cycle energy efficiency of various proposed mineral carbonation processes. The life-cycle assessment of aqueous mineral carbonation suggests that a variety of alkalinity sources and process configurations are capable of net CO2 reductions. The total CO2 storage potential for the alkalinity sources considered in the U.S. ranges from 1.8% to 23.7% of U.S. CO2 emissions, depending on the assumed availability of natural alkalinity sources and efficiency of the mineral carbonation processes.