Five room temperature ionic liquids based on C-2 substituted imidazolium cations and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anions were synthesized and their physicochemical properties: thermal property, density, viscosity, ionic conductivity, self-diffusion coefficients, and electrochemical stability, were systematically investigated. The temperature dependence of both viscosity and ionic conductivities of these ionic liquids can be described by the Vogel–Fulcher–Tamman (VFT) equation. Compared with the reference, 1-propyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, the introduction of functional groups at the C-2 position generally increased the viscosity and lowered the ionic conductivity. The introduction of an ethergroup (–CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3) at the C-2 position not only enhanced the reduction stability of the ionic liquids but also exhibited the lowest solid electrolyte interfacial resistance (RSEI). In contrast, the introduction of a cyano group (–CN) at the C-2 position not only decreased the reduction stability but also adversely increased the SEI resistance. The effect of the C-2 substitution on the reduction stability was explained by the change in the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The self-diffusion coefficients (D) of each ion were measured by pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). The lithium transference number (tLi) of 0.5 M LiTFSI/IL solutions calculated from the self-diffusion coefficients was in the range of 0.04 to 0.09.
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Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
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