Boosted by the rapid advances of science and technology in the field of energy materials, Li-ion batteries have achieved significant progress in energy storage performance since their commercial debut in 1991. The development of nanostructured electrode material is regarded as one of the key potentials for the further advancement in Li-ion batteries. This feature article summarizes our recent efforts in the synthesis and characterization of nanostructured electrode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries. The electrode materials include manganese oxide nanowall arrays, vanadium oxide nanofibers and films, vanadium oxide–carbon nanocomposites, lithium iron phosphate–carbon nanocomposite films, and titanium oxide nanotube arrays. Enhanced Li+ intercalation capacities, improved rate capabilities and better cyclic stability were achieved by constructing micro- or nanostructure, controlling materials crystallinity and introducing desired defects on the surface and/or in the bulk. The fabrication of binderless and additive-free nanostructured electrodes for Li-ion batteries via sol–gel processing is also highlighted.