Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Northwestern University, Evanston, USA
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Energy Environ. Sci., 2011,4, 2441-2450
21 Mar 2011,
27 May 2011
First published online
15 Jun 2011
Two covalently linked linear electron donor–acceptor triads Fc-ZnTPP-[NMI-FeI-FeI-S2(CO)6] (1) and Fc-Ph-ZnTPP-[NMI-FeI-FeI-S2(CO)6] (2) consisting of a zinc meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) chromophore, a naphthalene monoimide diiron hydrogenase active site model [NMI-FeI-FeI-S2(CO)6], and a ferrocene (Fc) secondary electron donor have been synthesized along with their corresponding dyad reference molecules ZnTPP-[NMI-FeI-FeI-S2(CO)6] (3), Fc-ZnTPP (4), and Fc-Ph-ZnTPP (5). Time-resolved transient absorption and emission studies in CH2Cl2 show that selective photoexcitation of ZnTPP in triads 1 and 2 results in two competing quenching pathways for 1*ZnTPP: electron transfer from 1*ZnTPP to [NMI-FeI-FeI-S2(CO)6] and energy transfer from 1*ZnTPP to low-lying Fc excited states. Our studies on reference dyads 4 and 5 show that the majority of 1*ZnTPP produced by the laser pulse decays rapidly by energy transfer to Fc in triad 1 (τ < 10 ps), while electron transfer to [NMI-FeI-FeI-S2(CO)6] dominates in triad 2, allowing the second rapid electron transfer step from Fc to ZnTPP+˙ to proceed. Quantum yields of the fully charge separated states Fc+-ZnTPP-[NMI-Fe0-FeI-S2(CO)6] and Fc+-Ph-ZnTPP-[NMI-Fe0-FeI-S2(CO)6] are 0.13 and 0.71, respectively. Charge recombination in Fc+-ZnTPP-[NMI-Fe0-FeI-S2(CO)6] occurs with τCR = 9 ± 1 ns and τCR = 67 ± 2 ns for Fc+-Ph-ZnTPP-[NMI-Fe0-FeI-S2(CO)6]. By incorporating a secondary electron donor, the lifetime of the reduced diironhydrogenase mimic was extended by a factor of >450. Studies of photochemical hydrogen evolution using 1 and 2 reveal that the hydrogen generation efficiency depends on the lifetime of the final charge separated state. The ability to execute a multi-electron proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism in a stepwise manner will allow us to investigate the structural and electronic requirements for each step aiding in overall system optimization. Thus, it is possible to use the same multi-step electron transfer strategy that has been employed to extend the lifetime of charge-separated states in photodriven donor–acceptor systems to extend the lifetime of the reduced states of metal complexes of potential use in catalyticprotonreduction.
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