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Issue 42, 2013
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The gadonanotubes: structural origin of their high-performance MRI contrast agent behavior

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Abstract

We present an X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local structure around the Gd3+ ions loaded within ultra-short carbon nanotubes (US-tubes). For this material, called gadonanotubes (GNTs), detailed modeling and analyses of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended fine structure (EXAFS) data have helped decipher the structural origin of their exceedingly high-performance MRI contrast agent behavior. Analysis revealed that the Gd3+ ions are surrounded by ∼9 oxygen ions in the first coordination sphere with ∼3 O2− ions and ∼6 O2− ions, respectively, centered around 2.24 Å and 2.41 Å and that the Gd3+-ion sites in the GNTs are small. These sites are proton decorated once in solution through formation of the –(OH) and/or –(OH2) ligands. A large hydration number due to small Gd3+-ion sites and short Gd–O bonds, and thus short Gd–H distances, are the essential structural details pertinent to the high proton relaxivity observed for GNTs suspended in water.

Graphical abstract: The gadonanotubes: structural origin of their high-performance MRI contrast agent behavior

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Jun 2013, accepted on 04 Sep 2013 and first published on 05 Sep 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3TB20870B
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. B, 2013,1, 5791-5797
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    The gadonanotubes: structural origin of their high-performance MRI contrast agent behavior

    Q. Ma, M. Jebb, M. F. Tweedle and L. J. Wilson, J. Mater. Chem. B, 2013, 1, 5791
    DOI: 10.1039/C3TB20870B

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