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Issue 9, 2016
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Trace level doping of lithium-rich cathode materials

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Lithium ion batteries have revolutionized portable electronics and have the potential to electrify the transportation sector. Lithium-rich cathode materials with the composition xLi2MnO3·(1−x)Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 have received considerable attention as candidates for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs). Cathodes made from these materials display high capacity (>200 mAhg−1) and good cycling stability, offering twice the energy density of currently available intercalation materials. Unfortunately, their performance is plagued by voltage fade due to a layered-spinel phase transformation. Herein, using spray pyrolysis, we show that certain inexpensive trace level (≤1%) dopants can help in mitigating voltage fade, when the material is cycled between 2.0–4.6 V. The dopants lead to greater capacity loss than what would be expected from a capacity that is strictly based on a change in the transitional-metal oxidation state. The results imply that a portion of the capacity of these materials comes from reversible oxygen chemistry. These findings could put a different perspective on fade mechanism prevention.

Graphical abstract: Trace level doping of lithium-rich cathode materials

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Publication details

The article was received on 28 Sep 2015, accepted on 15 Jan 2016 and first published on 27 Jan 2016

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5TA07764H
Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016,4, 3538-3545
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    Trace level doping of lithium-rich cathode materials

    M. Lengyel, K. Shen, D. M. Lanigan, J. M. Martin, X. Zhang and R. L. Axelbaum, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2016, 4, 3538
    DOI: 10.1039/C5TA07764H

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