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Issue 20, 2013
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Preparation of biomass hydrochar derived sulfonated catalysts and their catalytic effects for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production

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Abstract

Amorphous carbon-based sulfonated catalysts were generated from four kinds of biomass (lignin, cellulose, wood meal and D-xylose) by hydrothermal carbonization at various temperatures (225, 245 and 265 °C) followed by sulfonation, with a yield of 36–56%. All of these catalysts showed aromatic structure, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups, with a density of SO3H groups between 0.56 and 0.87 mmol g−1. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was produced from inulin in ionic liquids (ILs) in one step with the addition of carbon-based sulfonated catalysts, with a factual yield of 47–65% at 100 °C, 60 min. Moderate extension of reaction time (from 30 to 90 min) and increase of temperature (from 80 to 120 °C) promoted HMF production. Ethyl acetate was used as extractant, and about 39–55% of HMF can be recovered from ILs. One problem with these carbon-based sulfonated catalysts was that they would be partly deactivated in ILs for separate reuse, however, they can be easily regenerated by dilute sulfuric acid treatment. The carbon-based sulfonated catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity compared with traditional solid acid catalysts, and the carbon-based sulfonated catalyst/ILs reaction system showed high reusability. In consideration of the renewable as well as the high catalytic activity abilities, these biomass derived carbon-based sulfonated catalysts would be promising for industrial application.

Graphical abstract: Preparation of biomass hydrochar derived sulfonated catalysts and their catalytic effects for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Dec 2012, accepted on 01 Mar 2013 and first published on 04 Mar 2013


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3RA23314F
Citation: RSC Adv., 2013,3, 7360-7366
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    Preparation of biomass hydrochar derived sulfonated catalysts and their catalytic effects for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural production

    S. Kang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang and J. Chang, RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 7360
    DOI: 10.1039/C3RA23314F

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