Three-dimensional Sn–graphene anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries
Tin (Sn) has been considered as one of the most promising anode materials for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to its high energy density, abundance, and environmentally benign nature. However, the problems of fast capacity fading at prolonged cycling and poor rate capacity hinder its practical use. Herein, we report the development of a novel architecture of Sn nanoparticle-decorated three-dimensional (3D) foothill-like graphene as an anode in LIBs. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the 3D Sn–graphene anode delivered a reversible capacity of 466 mA h g−1 at a current density of 879 mA g−1 (1 C) after over 4000 cycles and 794 mA h g−1 at 293 mA g−1 (1/3 C) after 400 cycles. The capacity at 1/3 C is over 200% that of conventional graphite anodes, suggesting that the 3D Sn–graphene structure enables a significant improvement in the overall performance of a LIB in aspects of capacity, cycle life, and rate capacity.