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Issue 23, 2013
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Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging

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Abstract

In recent years, significant progress was achieved in the field of nanomedicine and bioimaging, but the development of new biomarkers for reliable detection of diseases at an early stage, molecular imaging, targeting and therapy remains crucial. The disadvantages of commonly used organic dyes include photobleaching, autofluorescence, phototoxicity and scattering when UV (ultraviolet) or visible light is used for excitation. The limited penetration depth of the excitation light and the visible emission into and from the biological tissue is a further drawback with regard to in vivo bioimaging. Lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the near-infrared (NIR) range under NIR excitation may overcome those problems. Due to the outstanding optical and magnetic properties of lanthanide ions (Ln3+), nanoscopic host materials doped with Ln3+, e.g. Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+, are promising candidates for NIR–NIR bioimaging. Ln3+-doped gadolinium-based inorganic nanostructures, such as Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+, have a high potential as opto-magnetic markers allowing the combination of time-resolved optical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of high spatial resolution. Recent progress in our research on over-1000 nm NIR fluorescent nanoprobes for in vivo NIR–NIR bioimaging will be discussed in this review.

Graphical abstract: Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging

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Publication details

The article was received on 05 May 2013, accepted on 09 Jul 2013 and first published on 11 Jul 2013


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/C3NR02286B
Citation: Nanoscale, 2013,5, 11339-11361
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    Upconverting and NIR emitting rare earth based nanostructures for NIR-bioimaging

    E. Hemmer, N. Venkatachalam, H. Hyodo, A. Hattori, Y. Ebina, H. Kishimoto and K. Soga, Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 11339
    DOI: 10.1039/C3NR02286B

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