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Issue 3, 2005
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Adaptation of a new pneumatic nebulizer for sample introduction in ICP spectrometry

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Abstract

A new pneumatic nebulizer, the pneumatic extension nozzle (PEN), originally developed in technical laboratories, mainly for the production of rock and glass wool, is applied for sample introduction in ICP-OES. The droplet formation process under various operating conditions and geometries was investigated using a transparent enlarged model of the PEN. For the application in ICP spectrometry the geometry of the PEN was optimized and miniaturized with the aid of similarity theory. In comparison with a standard concentric nebulizer the miniaturized PEN generates an aerosol with a twice higher mass fraction of droplets with diameters D < 10 μm. An empirical model for the prediction of the mean droplet diameter is presented, using the nozzle diameter as a linear size scale. This model enables a better fit to experimental data compared with existing models. Applying the miniaturised PEN to a simultaneous ICP-OES instrument lowers the detection limits up to a factor of 3.5 depending on the element. The new pneumatic extension nozzle can be easily adapted to existing ICP-OES instruments.

Graphical abstract: Adaptation of a new pneumatic nebulizer for sample introduction in ICP spectrometry

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Publication details

The article was received on 14 Jul 2004, accepted on 22 Dec 2004 and first published on 18 Jan 2005


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B410772C
Citation: J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2005,20, 169-175
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    Adaptation of a new pneumatic nebulizer for sample introduction in ICP spectrometry

    S. Groom, G. Schaldach, M. Ulmer, P. Walzel and H. Berndt, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2005, 20, 169
    DOI: 10.1039/B410772C

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