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Issue 7, 2008
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Studies on the solvent-free and waste-free Knoevenagel condensation

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Abstract

The mechanochemical reaction of malononitrile with various aldehydes was studied with the goal to achieve quantitative stoichiometric conversion of the reactants to their corresponding benzylidene-malononitriles in absence of any solvents and catalysts. Besides already known reactions in the solid state, reactions with liquid aldehydes were also attempted. These reactions were carried out in vibration and planetary ball mills as well as, for comparison, in a melt under microwave irradiation. A successful quantitative conversion depended strongly on the choice of the aldehyde, precluding a generalization of the reaction scheme. Furthermore, the results obtained from the various approaches for non-classical heating (ball mills, microwaves) were compared.

Graphical abstract: Studies on the solvent-free and waste-free Knoevenagel condensation

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Publication details

The article was received on 30 Jan 2008, accepted on 16 Apr 2008 and first published on 16 May 2008


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/B801661E
Citation: Green Chem., 2008,10, 767-772
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    Studies on the solvent-free and waste-free Knoevenagel condensation

    R. Trotzki, M. M. Hoffmann and B. Ondruschka, Green Chem., 2008, 10, 767
    DOI: 10.1039/B801661E

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