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Issue 3, 2017
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Poly(acrylic acid)-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticle and ultraviolet light co-exposure has minimal effect on developing zebrafish (Danio rerio)

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Abstract

Widespread production of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) for use in various consumer products has increased the potential for their release into the environment. Most studies examine TiO2 NP toxicity under laboratory lighting that emits little to no ultraviolet (UV) radiation, yet these nanoscale particles are wide band-gap semiconductors capable of generating reactive oxygen species. The purpose of this study was to examine poly(acrylic acid)-coated TiO2 NP phototoxicity in vivo. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 0.1, 1 or 10 mg L−1 of characterized uncoated TiO2 NPs (positive control), polymer-coated TiO2 NPs, and the polymer coating alone (negative control) in the presence or absence of UV light. Survival, hatching success, malformation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), catalase activity, total glutathione (TG) level, superoxide dismutase activity, and alteration in antioxidant-related gene expression were measured. Uncoated TiO2 NPs produced hydroxyl radicals (OH˙), delayed hatch, induced lipid peroxidation, increased catalase activity and TG levels, and upregulated glutathione peroxidase 1a gene expression 1.59 fold in the presence of UV light. Polymer-coated TiO2 NP increased both TBARS production and TG levels under simulated sunlight illumination. We suggest that the polymer coating plays a role in OH˙-mediated effects of TiO2 NPs in developing zebrafish and that toxicity depends on UV illumination. Since the presence of UV light evidently affects TiO2 NP toxicity, the need for more environmentally representative nanotoxicity studies that take sunlight activation into account is strengthened.

Graphical abstract: Poly(acrylic acid)-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticle and ultraviolet light co-exposure has minimal effect on developing zebrafish (Danio rerio)

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Publication details

The article was received on 26 Sep 2016, accepted on 27 Jan 2017 and first published on 30 Jan 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6EN00436A
Citation: Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2017,4, 658-669
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    Poly(acrylic acid)-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticle and ultraviolet light co-exposure has minimal effect on developing zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    L. C. Felix, E. J. Folkerts, Y. He and G. G. Goss, Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2017, 4, 658
    DOI: 10.1039/C6EN00436A

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