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Issue 4, 2012
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PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles

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Abstract

While antimony has been reported to migrate from PET bottles into contents, reports on bottled water and soft drinks usage and PET bottle reuse patterns are currently unavailable in the literature. Bottle use conditions and patterns are important determinants of antimony migration. In this work a survey assessing the pattern of bottle use and reuse in Britain and Nigeria was undertaken. The survey findings influenced the design of laboratory experiments that assessed the migration of antimony from PET bottles into water and soft drinks. Typical storage durations for bottled contents between purchase and opening for use were 7 days or less. However storage of up to one year was reported. Bottle reuse was high and similar for the two countries with reuse durations being higher in Nigeria. The antimony concentration in 32 PET bottle materials from Britain and Nigeria were similar and ranged between 177 and 310 mg kg−1. For 47 freshly purchased British bottled contents antimony concentration ranged between 0.03 and 6.61 μg L−1 with only one sample exceeding the EU acceptable limit. Concentrations of Cd, Ge, Zn, Al, Be, Ti, Co and Pb were also measured. At realistic temperatures of 40 and 60 °C antimony concentration in deionised water in bottles remained below the EU acceptable limit even after 48 h exposure. The limit was exceeded for most exposures at 80 °C. Concentration of antimony in some bottled contents exceeded the EU limit after 11 months of storage at room temperature. Bottle aging and increase in bottle volume were associated with decreased migration of antimony from bottles.

Graphical abstract: PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Nov 2011, accepted on 24 Feb 2012 and first published on 28 Feb 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2EM10917D
Citation: J. Environ. Monit., 2012,14, 1236-1246
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    PET bottle use patterns and antimony migration into bottled water and soft drinks: the case of British and Nigerian bottles

    A. Tukur, L. Sharp, B. Stern, C. Tizaoui and H. Benkreira, J. Environ. Monit., 2012, 14, 1236
    DOI: 10.1039/C2EM10917D

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