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Issue 1, 2012
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Manganese in the upper Severn mid-Wales

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Abstract

The concentrations of manganese (Mn) in the Upper River Severn (the Plynlimon catchments) are examined in relation to rainfall, cloud water, throughfall, stemflow and stream water concentrations where there is over 20 years of monitoring data available. Manganese concentrations are particularly low in rainfall and cloud water, with maximum concentrations occurring under low volumes of catch due to atmospheric “washout” of contaminants and dry deposition. There is strong Mn enrichment in throughfall and stemflow and this is probably linked to cycling through the vegetation. Manganese in the streams and groundwaters are primarily supplied from within-catchment sources. The highest concentrations occur within the tree canopy probably due to element cycling and in groundwaters due to mobilisation from the rock. Manganese concentrations in streams are at their lowest during spring and summer following long dry spells, with rapid increases following subsequent rain. There is no clear long-term trend in Mn concentration in the streams although there are increases in Mn concentrations for years when there is extensive felling of spruce plantation forest and in 1995 following a more extensive dry period. New high resolution monitoring picks up the effects of the rising limb of the hydrograph when concentrations rapidly increase, diurnal patterns during summer low-flow periods and contrasting dynamics between moorland and forested catchments.

Graphical abstract: Manganese in the upper Severn mid-Wales

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Publication details

The article was received on 09 Aug 2011, accepted on 21 Nov 2011 and first published on 30 Nov 2011


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C1EM10651A
Citation: J. Environ. Monit., 2012,14, 155-164
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    Manganese in the upper Severn mid-Wales

    A. P. Rowland, C. Neal, B. Reynolds, M. Neal, A. J. Lawlor and D. Sleep, J. Environ. Monit., 2012, 14, 155
    DOI: 10.1039/C1EM10651A

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