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Issue 1, 2008
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Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub- and supercritical water technologies

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Abstract

Hydrothermal technologies are broadly defined as chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200–600 °C), high-pressure (5–40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. This thermochemical means of reforming biomass may have energetic advantages, since, when water is heated at high pressures a phase change to steam is avoided which avoids large enthalpic energy penalties. Biological chemicals undergo a range of reactions, including dehydration and decarboxylation reactions, which are influenced by the temperature, pressure, concentration, and presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Several biomass hydrothermal conversion processes are in development or demonstration. Liquefaction processes are generally lower temperature (200–400 °C) reactions which produce liquid products, often called “bio-oil” or “bio-crude”. Gasification processes generally take place at higher temperatures (400–700 °C) and can produce methane or hydrogen gases in high yields.

Graphical abstract: Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub- and supercritical water technologies

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Jun 2008, accepted on 24 Jun 2008 and first published on 09 Jul 2008


Article type: Review Article
DOI: 10.1039/B810100K
Citation: Energy Environ. Sci., 2008,1, 32-65
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    Thermochemical biofuel production in hydrothermal media: A review of sub- and supercritical water technologies

    A. A. Peterson, F. Vogel, R. P. Lachance, M. Fröling, M. J. Antal, Jr. and J. W. Tester, Energy Environ. Sci., 2008, 1, 32
    DOI: 10.1039/B810100K

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