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Issue 27, 2012
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Mechanistic insights on platinum- and palladium-pincer catalyzed coupling and cyclopropanation reactions between olefins

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Abstract

The mechanism of M(II)-PNP-pincer catalyzed reaction between (i) ethene, (ii) trans-butene with 2-methylbut-2-ene, 2,3-dimethylbut-2-ene and tert-butylbutene is examined by using density functional theory methods (where M = Pt or Pd). All key intermediates and transition states involved in the reaction are precisely located on the respective potential energy surfaces using the popular DFT functionals such as mPW1K, M06-2X, and B3LYP in conjunction with the 6-31+G** basis set. The reaction between these olefins can lead to a linear coupling product or a substituted cyclopropane. The energetic comparison between coupling as well as cyclopropanation pathways involving four pairs of olefins for both platinum (1–4) and palladium (5–8) catalyzed reactions is performed. The key events in the lower energy pathway in the mechanistic course involves (i) a C–C bond formation between the metal bound olefin (ethene or trans-butene) and a free olefin, and (ii) two successive [1,2] hydrogen migrations in the ensuing carbocationic intermediates (1c–4c, and 1d–4d), toward the formation of the coupling product. The computed barriers for these steps in the reaction of metal bound ethene to free tert-butylbutene (or other butenes) are found to be much lower than the corresponding steps when trans-butene is bound to the metal pincer. The Gibbs free energy differences between the transition states leading to the coupling product (TS(d-e)) and that responsible for cyclopropanated product (TS(d-g)) are found to be diminishingly closer in the case of the platinum pincer as compared to that in the palladium system. The computed energetics indicate that the coupled product prefers to remain as a metal olefin complex, consistent with the earlier experimental reports.

Graphical abstract: Mechanistic insights on platinum- and palladium-pincer catalyzed coupling and cyclopropanation reactions between olefins

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Publication details

The article was received on 02 Dec 2011, accepted on 30 Apr 2012 and first published on 30 May 2012


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C2DT12325H
Citation: Dalton Trans., 2012,41, 8430-8440
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    Mechanistic insights on platinum- and palladium-pincer catalyzed coupling and cyclopropanation reactions between olefins

    R. Rajeev and R. B. Sunoj, Dalton Trans., 2012, 41, 8430
    DOI: 10.1039/C2DT12325H

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