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Issue 5, 2011
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Phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes for bioimaging

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The application of phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes with d6, d8 and d10 electron configurations for bioimaging is a new and promising research field and has been attracting increasing interest. In this critical review, we systematically evaluate the advantages of phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes as bioimaging probes, including their photophysical properties, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake mechanisms. The progress of research into the use of phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes for staining different compartments of cells, monitoring intracellular functional species, providing targeted bioimaging, two-photon bioimaging, small-animal bioimaging, multimodal bioimaging and time-resolved bioimaging is summarized. In addition, several possible future directions in this field are also discussed (133 references).

Graphical abstract: Phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes for bioimaging

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Publication details

The article was received on 16 Sep 2010 and first published on 21 Jan 2011

Article type: Critical Review
DOI: 10.1039/C0CS00114G
Citation: Chem. Soc. Rev., 2011,40, 2508-2524
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    Phosphorescent heavy-metal complexes for bioimaging

    Q. Zhao, C. Huang and F. Li, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2011, 40, 2508
    DOI: 10.1039/C0CS00114G

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