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Development of selective and sensitive Ga3+sensor for environmental safety: A comparative study between cyclohexane and aromatic bis-sulphonamides fabricated glassy carbon electrodes

Abstract

Our environment is becoming more polluted due to the commercial applications of toxic chemicals and heavy metal cations. So, for the sensing of heavy metal cations in aqueous solution N,N'-(cyclohexane-1,2-diyl)bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide) CDBDMBS (3a) and N,N'-(1,2-phenylene)bis(2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide) PBDMBS (3b) were synthesized in this work. The spectroscopic techniques such as UV/Vis Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR & 13C-NMR), in addition to Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction were carried out for their structure elucidation. After that, a simple, cheap and reliable electrochemical technique was carried out in order to check the affinity of our newly designed chelating agents towards the various heavy metals cations (Ag+, As3+, Au3+, Ce2+, Cr3+, Ga3+, Hg2+, Pb2+ and Y3+) using the Keithley electrometer. For this purpose CDBDMBS and PBDMBS were fabricated with conducting nafion binder on to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the development of sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors to probe the heavy metals cations in phosphate buffer phase (pH = 7.0) in short response of time, qualitatively and quantitatively. It was found that CDBDMBS was very selective with good affinity against the gallium cations after the comparative study between CDBDMBS/Nafion/GCE and PBDMBS/Nafion/GCE. It is one of the heavy metal cations among the various in our ecosystem as environmental pollutant. The analytical performance of CDBDMBS/Nafion/GCE was found to be very fascinating in terms of sensitivity, stability, linear dynamic range and improved electrochemical performance towards the Ga3+ ions. The calibration plot is linear (r2 = 0.9006) over the large concentration range of Ga3+ ions (1.0 nM to 0.01 M) in addition to the sensitivity, limit of detection (at a SNR of 3) and limit of quantification that are found to be 3.955 x 10-3 µAµM-1cm-2, 0.02 nM and 0.08 nM, respectively. This novel approach introduces a new and well organizes system for the development of efficient toxic cationic electrochemical sensors in environmental and health-care fields in large scales. Therefore, this newly designed CDBDMBS/Nafion/GCE presents a cost effective compound that can be used as a feasible substitute for the detection and removing of Ga3+ions from water samples efficiently.

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Publication details

The article was received on 08 May 2018, accepted on 09 Jul 2018 and first published on 10 Jul 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8NJ02255K
Citation: New J. Chem., 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Development of selective and sensitive Ga3+sensor for environmental safety: A comparative study between cyclohexane and aromatic bis-sulphonamides fabricated glassy carbon electrodes

    T. A. Shaikh, M. N. Arshad, A. M. Asiri and M. M. Rahman, New J. Chem., 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8NJ02255K

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