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Determination of silver in seawater by the direct analysis of solvent bars by high resolution continuum source solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

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Abstract

The direct analysis of solvent bars used for silver micro-extraction from seawater samples by high resolution continuum source solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (HR-CS-SS-GF-AAS) has been achieved. Three successive pyrolysis steps at 290 °C, 700 °C and 1000 °C were applied to ensure the elimination of the fumes released during the calcination of the bar prior to the atomization at 1800 °C. Silver micro-extraction with solvent bars was optimised by applying a multivariate strategy. The concentrations of the extracting agent (tri-isobutylphosphine sulphide), reextracting reagent (sodium thiosulfate) and nitrate were studied by using a central composite design based on the surface response methodology. The optimum values were 0.168 mol L−1, 0.033 mol L−1 and 0.159 mol L−1, respectively. Under these conditions, a stirring rate of 1000 rpm and an extraction time of 20 minutes were optimum. Additionally, the effect of chlorides and humic acids was also studied. The method exhibited a repeatability and reproducibility of 1.54% and 2.68%, respectively, with a limit of detection of 2.52 ng L−1 and a linear range up to 334 ng L−1. For the first time, an ultra-trace element (silver at the ng L−1 level) was pre-concentrated and determined in seawater by using a direct solid analysis-based method, simplifying the sample preparation process and avoiding its manipulation. The method was successfully applied to dissolved silver determination in real seawater samples after the micro-extraction process and was validated by comparison with the reference method of liquid–liquid extraction with APDC/DDDC and ICP-MS determination.

Graphical abstract: Determination of silver in seawater by the direct analysis of solvent bars by high resolution continuum source solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Jul 2018, accepted on 31 Aug 2018 and first published on 31 Aug 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8JA00243F
Citation: J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2018, Advance Article
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    Determination of silver in seawater by the direct analysis of solvent bars by high resolution continuum source solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    R. J. González-Álvarez, D. Bellido-Milla, J. J. Pinto and C. Moreno, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8JA00243F

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