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Classification analysis of archaeological findings from early-iron production (Turopolje region, NW Croatia) based on multi-analytical profiling

Abstract

The combination of XRF, SEM/EDS, ICP-AES , ICP-MS, and chemometric methods for investigation of early-iron production artefacts is presented. The visually similar samples were randomly collected from stored humps of material that was excavated in Turoplje region, NW Croatia. Elemental analysis of different kind of slags and pit furnace remains is performed from major (Fe, Si, Al, Ca, K, Mg, P, Mn, Ti) to trace constituents (Cu, Cr, Ni, Mo, Pb, V, Zn, Zr, and REE’s). Applied statistical analysis (PCA and HCA) of enlarged set of measured data allow the similar features of heterogeneous material become clearly discernible. Thus, three types of slags namely, iron-rich tap slag, bloom slag, and ceramic-rich slag are recognized. Moreover, retrospective examination of morphology data from SEM/EDS observations, along with elemental signature and performed statistical treatment, enables identification of exception in a set of slags. It is identified as a non-processed bog iron ore. These results are beneficiary in forthcoming multidisciplinary studies of early-iron production in Pannonic area. The combination of presented methods facilitate recognition of inhomogeneous slag material from archaeometallurgical production sites, especially when numerous mutually similar samples are scattered at excavation site.

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Jun 2018, accepted on 07 Sep 2018 and first published on 10 Sep 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8JA00202A
Citation: J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2018, Accepted Manuscript
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    Classification analysis of archaeological findings from early-iron production (Turopolje region, NW Croatia) based on multi-analytical profiling

    I. Nemet, S. Rončević, A. Bugar, T. Zubin Ferri and L. Pitarević, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2018, Accepted Manuscript , DOI: 10.1039/C8JA00202A

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