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Precise control of morphology of ultrafine LiMn2O4 nanorods as a supercapacitor electrode via a two-step hydrothermal method

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Abstract

We report three different synthesis routes, which maintain similar reaction conditions, to find an effective way to precisely control the growth of ultrafine one-dimensional (1D) LiMn2O4 in the form of nanorods. We developed a novel method of mixing the precursors through a hydrothermal technique, yielding low dimensional precursors for an effective solid state reaction to synthesize the nanorods. However, to achieve these, highly uniform β-MnO2 nanorods were initially grown as one of the main precursors. The uniformity observed in the as grown β-MnO2 nanorods using the hydrothermal technique helps to attract minute LiOH particles upon mixing over their highly confined nano-regime surfaces. This facilitated the solid state reaction between MnO2 and LiOH to develop one of the finest LiMn2O4 nanorods with diameters of 10–80 nm, possessing a high surface area of 88.294 m2 g−1. We find superior charge storage behaviour for these finely ordered 1D nanostructures as supercapacitor electrodes in KOH with K3Fe(CN)6 as an electrolyte, in contrast to Li2SO4. A high pseudo-capacitance of 653.5 F g−1 at 15 A g−1 is observed using a galvanostatic discharge time with a high retention capacity of 93% after 4000 cycles. The enhanced charge storage property may arise from the redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− and K+ ions of the electrolyte. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the effectiveness of a two-step hydrothermal method in tuning the supercapacitive behaviour of 1D LiMn2O4 in a redox additive electrolyte.

Graphical abstract: Precise control of morphology of ultrafine LiMn2O4 nanorods as a supercapacitor electrode via a two-step hydrothermal method

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Publication details

The article was received on 22 Jun 2018, accepted on 19 Jul 2018 and first published on 25 Jul 2018


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C8CE01029C
Citation: CrystEngComm, 2018, Advance Article
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    Precise control of morphology of ultrafine LiMn2O4 nanorods as a supercapacitor electrode via a two-step hydrothermal method

    N. Kumar, K. Guru Prasad, T. Maiyalagan and A. Sen, CrystEngComm, 2018, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C8CE01029C

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