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Issue 35, 2017
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Balancing the electrical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance of hetero-atom doped carbon

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Abstract

Heteroatom-doped carbonaceous materials derived from polymers are emerging as a new class of promising supercapacitor electrodes. These electrodes have both electrical double layer capacitance (from carbon matrices) and pseudo-capacitance (from hetero-atoms). Balancing the electrical double layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance is a key to achieve large capacitance at ultrafast current densities. Here we investigate the influence of pyrolysis temperature on capacitive performance of hetero-atom (oxygen and nitrogen) doped carbons derived from polypyrrole nanowire arrays. Structural and electrochemical characterization reveal that the concentration of hetero-atoms as well as the ratio of electrical double layer capacitance and pseudo-capacitance can be tuned by varying the pyrolysis temperature. In fact the hetero-atom doped carbon sample obtained at a relatively lower pyrolysis temperature (500 °C) exhibits the optimal capacitive performance. It yields an outstanding areal capacitance of 324 mF cm−2 at 1 mA cm−2 (141 F g−1@0.43 A g−1), and more importantly, retains an areal capacitance of 184.7 mF cm−2 (80.3 F g−1@43.5 A g−1) at an ultrahigh current density of 100 mA cm−2. An asymmetric supercapacitor consisting of hetero-atom doped carbon as an anode delivers a maximum volumetric energy density of 1.7 mW h cm−3 at a volumetric power density of 0.014 W cm−3, which is among the best values reported for asymmetric supercapacitors.

Graphical abstract: Balancing the electrical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance of hetero-atom doped carbon

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Publication details

The article was received on 14 Jun 2017, accepted on 09 Aug 2017 and first published on 09 Aug 2017


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C7NR04234E
Citation: Nanoscale, 2017,9, 13119-13127
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    Balancing the electrical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance of hetero-atom doped carbon

    Z. Huang, T. Liu, Y. Song, Y. Li and X. Liu, Nanoscale, 2017, 9, 13119
    DOI: 10.1039/C7NR04234E

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