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Potassium isopropyl xanthate (PIX): an ultra-efficient palladium scavenger

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Abstract

The increasing employment of palladium-catalyzed reactions in the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has created a pressing need for ultra-efficient palladium removal of the resulting metal contaminants. This communication discusses the identification and development of Potassium Isopropyl Xanthate (PIX) as a simple, readily available and ultra-efficient palladium scavenger capable of removing residual palladium from the API to levels less than 1 ppm. In addition, the discovery of a synergistic effect of iodine, in combination with PIX and other palladium scavengers, to enhance palladium removal has further increased the efficiency of the palladium removal process. The PIX and I2 system has been successfully applied to the ceftolozane sulfate 2nd generation manufacturing chemistry to reduce palladium in the API resulting from a late stage palladium-catalyzed coupling reaction to only 0.1 ppm.

Graphical abstract: Potassium isopropyl xanthate (PIX): an ultra-efficient palladium scavenger

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Publication details

The article was received on 15 Jun 2017, accepted on 06 Jul 2017 and first published on 17 Jul 2017


Article type: Communication
DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01765K
Citation: Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article
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    Potassium isopropyl xanthate (PIX): an ultra-efficient palladium scavenger

    H. Ren, C. A. Strulson, G. Humphrey, R. Xiang, G. Li, D. R. Gauthier and K. M. Maloney, Green Chem., 2017, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C7GC01765K

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