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Issue 5, 2016
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Cytotoxic actions of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, a biocide in hydraulic fracturing fluids, on rat thymocytes

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Abstract

2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) is a major biocide in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Most biocides in fracturing fluids are considered to have low acute toxicity to mammals, but little information is available in the literature regarding the toxic actions of DBNPA on mammalian cells. This information is important to suggest the DBNPA toxicity on wild mammals. In this study, the effects of DBNPA on rat thymocytes were studied using flow cytometric techniques in order to further characterize the cytotoxicity of DBNPA for its safe use. DBNPA at 3–7.5 μM produced a steep concentration-dependent increase in cell lethality. At 5 μM, DBNPA significantly depolarized the membranes with a disturbance of the asymmetrical distribution of membrane phospholipids. The lethal effect of DBNPA was completely abolished under cold conditions, and was augmented in the presence of ethanol. It is suggested that the lethal action of DBNPA is linked to changes in membrane fluidity. Because the concentration-dependent change of DBNPA-induced lethal action was very steep under in vitro conditions, the adverse actions of DBNPA on wild mammals are concerning, even though such reports have not yet surfaced.

Graphical abstract: Cytotoxic actions of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, a biocide in hydraulic fracturing fluids, on rat thymocytes

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Jan 2016, accepted on 08 Jun 2016 and first published on 21 Jun 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6TX00027D
Author version available: Download Author version (PDF)
Citation: Toxicol. Res., 2016,5, 1329-1334
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    Cytotoxic actions of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide, a biocide in hydraulic fracturing fluids, on rat thymocytes

    M. Ishikawa, R. Muraguchi, A. Azuma, S. Nawata, M. Miya, T. Katsuura, T. Naito and Y. Oyama, Toxicol. Res., 2016, 5, 1329
    DOI: 10.1039/C6TX00027D

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