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Issue 6, 2016
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Insight into the mechanism and outcoupling enhancement of excimer-associated white light generation

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Abstract

Fundamental insight into excimer formation has been gained by using 9,10-bis[4-(9-carbazolyl)phenyl]anthracene] (Cz9PhAn) as a probe. Cz9PhAn exhibits a highly emissive blue fluorescence in solution and is found to emit a panchromatic white light spectrum (400–750 nm) in film, powder and single crystal, in which an additional excimer band appears at ∼550 nm. Detailed structural analyses, emission relaxation dynamics and a theoretical approach conclude the formation of an anthracene*/phenyl ring excimer through an overlap between π* (anthracene) and π (phenyl ring) orbitals in a face-to-edge stacking orientation. The rate of excimer formation is determined to be 2.2 × 109 s−1 at room temperature, which requires coupling with lattice motion with an activation energy of 0.44 kcal mol−1. Exploiting Cz9PhAn as a single emitter, a fluorescent white organic light emitting diode (WOLED) is fabricated with a maximum external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 3.6% at 1000 cd m−2 (4.2 V) and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.30, 0.33). The white-light Cz9PhAn reveals a preferred orientation of the transition dipole moment in the emitting layer to enhance light outcoupling. This non-doped, single component (Cz9PhAn) WOLED greatly reduces the complexity of the fabrication process, rendering a green and cost-effective alternative among the contemporary display/lighting technologies.

Graphical abstract: Insight into the mechanism and outcoupling enhancement of excimer-associated white light generation

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Dec 2015, accepted on 12 Feb 2016 and first published on 12 Feb 2016


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C5SC04902D
Citation: Chem. Sci., 2016,7, 3556-3563
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Insight into the mechanism and outcoupling enhancement of excimer-associated white light generation

    Y. Chen, K. Tang, Y. Chen, J. Shen, Y. Wu, S. Liu, C. Lee, C. Chen, T. Lai, S. Tung, R. Jeng, W. Hung, M. Jiao, C. Wu and P. Chou, Chem. Sci., 2016, 7, 3556
    DOI: 10.1039/C5SC04902D

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