Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 5, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

An in vitro cell irradiation protocol for testing photopharmaceuticals and the effect of blue, green, and red light on human cancer cell lines

Author affiliations

Abstract

Traditionally, ultraviolet light (100–400 nm) is considered an exogenous carcinogen while visible light (400–780 nm) is deemed harmless. In this work, a LED irradiation system for in vitro photocytotoxicity testing is described. The LED irradiation system was developed for testing photopharmaceutical drugs, but was used here to determine the basal level response of human cancer cell lines to visible light of different wavelengths, without any photo(chemo)therapeutic. The effects of blue (455 nm, 10.5 mW cm−2), green (520 nm, 20.9 mW cm−2), and red light (630 nm, 34.4 mW cm−2) irradiation was measured for A375 (human malignant melanoma), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), MCF7 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), and U-87 MG (human glioblastoma-grade IV) cell lines. In response to a blue light dose of 19 J cm−2, three cell lines exhibited a minimal (20%, MDA-MB-231) to moderate (30%, A549 and 60%, A375) reduction in cell viability, compared to dark controls. The other cell lines were not affected. Effective blue light doses that produce a therapeutic response in 50% of the cell population (ED50) compared to dark conditions were found to be 10.9 and 30.5 J cm−2 for A375 and A549 cells, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any of the six cell lines irradiated with a 19 J cm−2 dose of 520 nm (green) or 630 nm (red) light. The results demonstrate that blue light irradiation can have an effect on the viability of certain human cancer cell types and controls should be used in photopharmaceutical testing, which uses high-energy (blue or violet) visible light activation.

Graphical abstract: An in vitro cell irradiation protocol for testing photopharmaceuticals and the effect of blue, green, and red light on human cancer cell lines

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 18 Nov 2015, accepted on 30 Mar 2016 and first published on 31 Mar 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5PP00424A
Citation: Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016,15, 644-653
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    An in vitro cell irradiation protocol for testing photopharmaceuticals and the effect of blue, green, and red light on human cancer cell lines

    S. L. Hopkins, B. Siewert, S. H. C. Askes, P. Veldhuizen, R. Zwier, M. Heger and S. Bonnet, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2016, 15, 644
    DOI: 10.1039/C5PP00424A

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements