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Issue 37, 2016
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Targeted SERS nanosensors measure physicochemical gradients and free energy changes in live 3D tumor spheroids

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Abstract

Use of multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) to investigate therapies has gained impetus because they have potential to mimic factors including zonation, hypoxia and drug-resistance. However, analysis remains difficult and often destroys 3D integrity. Here we report an optical technique using targeted nanosensors that allows in situ 3D mapping of redox potential gradients whilst retaining MTS morphology and function. The magnitude of the redox potential gradient can be quantified as a free energy difference (ΔG) and used as a measurement of MTS viability. We found that by delivering different doses of radiotherapy to MTS we could correlate loss of ΔG with increasing therapeutic dose. In addition, we found that resistance to drug therapy was indicated by an increase in ΔG. This robust and reproducible technique allows interrogation of an in vitro tumor-model's bioenergetic response to therapy, indicating its potential as a tool for therapy development.

Graphical abstract: Targeted SERS nanosensors measure physicochemical gradients and free energy changes in live 3D tumor spheroids

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Publication details

The article was received on 29 Jul 2016, accepted on 05 Sep 2016 and first published on 06 Sep 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6NR06031E
Citation: Nanoscale, 2016,8, 16710-16718
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Targeted SERS nanosensors measure physicochemical gradients and free energy changes in live 3D tumor spheroids

    L. E. Jamieson, V. L. Camus, P. O. Bagnaninchi, K. M. Fisher, G. D. Stewart, W. H. Nailon, D. B. McLaren, D. J. Harrison and C. J. Campbell, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 16710
    DOI: 10.1039/C6NR06031E

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