Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 40, 2016
Previous Article Next Article

Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

Author affiliations

Abstract

We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996–916 kg m−3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: (i) prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid–vapour homogenisation. We used single ultrashort laser pulses to stimulate vapour bubble nucleation in initially monophase liquid inclusions. Water densities were calculated based on prograde homogenisation temperatures using the IAPWS-95 formulation. We found retrograde liquid–vapour homogenisation temperatures in excellent agreement with IAPWS-95. (ii) Retrograde ice nucleation. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the nucleation of ice in the absence of the vapour bubble. Our ice nucleation data in the doubly metastable region are inconsistent with the low-temperature trend of the spinodal predicted by IAPWS-95, as liquid water with a density of 921 kg m−3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to a temperature of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. (iii) Ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in the absence of the vapour bubble, i.e. in the negative pressure region. (iv) Spontaneous retrograde and, for the first time, prograde vapour bubble nucleation. Prograde bubble nucleation occurred upon heating at temperatures above ice melting. The occurrence of prograde and retrograde vapour bubble nucleation in the same inclusions indicates a maximum of the bubble nucleation curve in the ϱT plane at around 40 °C. The new experimental data represent valuable benchmarks to evaluate and further improve theoretical models describing the pVT properties of metastable water in the low-temperature region.

Graphical abstract: Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 17 Jun 2016, accepted on 31 Aug 2016 and first published on 01 Sep 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C6CP04250C
Citation: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016,18, 28227-28241
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
  •   Request permissions

    Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    C. Qiu, Y. Krüger, M. Wilke, D. Marti, J. Rička and M. Frenz, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 28227
    DOI: 10.1039/C6CP04250C

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements