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Issue 7, 2016
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Persistence of C–H⋯π(chelate ring) interactions in the crystal structures of Pd(S2COR)2. The utility of Pd(S2COR)2 as precursors for palladium sulphide materials

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Abstract

The crystallographic structures of 12 palladium xanthates, Pd(S2COR)2 (R = alkyl) show a uniform adoption of square-planar PdS4 geometries. Supramolecular aggregation in 1 (R = Me), 2 (Et) and 3 (n-Pr) is based on secondary Pd⋯S interactions, which are “turned off” when the bulk of R increases. In 4 (i-Pr), C–H⋯S hydrogen bonding is present. In each of 2–4, C–H⋯π(PdS2C) interactions are incorporated within the architecture, stabilised by Pd⋯S secondary- or C–H⋯S hydrogen-bonding. In 5–12 (R = n-Bu, i-Bu, n-Pent, i-Pent, neoPent, n-Hex, i-Hex, neoHex), varying numbers of stand-alone C–H⋯π(PdS2C) interactions involving different hydrogen donors uniformly stabilise supramolecular chains in their crystal structures. In order to determine the relative importance of the various intermolecular interactions and packing effects, a computational study using dispersion-corrected density-functional theory was performed on 3 (R = n-Pr). The results showed that the most significant contributors to the stability of the crystal structure are Pd⋯S interactions followed closely by C–H⋯π(PdS2C) interactions. Two non-specific hydrophobic interactions also contribute to the overall packing to a lesser extent. The utility of Pd(S2COR)2 to function as synthetic precursors for PdS nanoparticles and thin films was also investigated. Aerosol-assisted-CVD on representative examples generated PdS films with either matted, needle-like or granular morphologies depending on temperature and substrate. Solvothermal (ethylene glycol) decomposition generated sulphur-rich PdS nanoparticles with diameters 120 nm (7 and 10)–400 nm (8). When dodecanethiol was employed as a capping agent, PdS1.75 nanoparticles <10 nm were generated from 1.

Graphical abstract: Persistence of C–H⋯π(chelate ring) interactions in the crystal structures of Pd(S2COR)2. The utility of Pd(S2COR)2 as precursors for palladium sulphide materials

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Publication details

The article was received on 31 Oct 2015, accepted on 08 Jan 2016 and first published on 11 Jan 2016


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C5CE02126J
Author version available: Download Author version (PDF)
Citation: CrystEngComm, 2016,18, 1105-1117
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    Persistence of C–H⋯π(chelate ring) interactions in the crystal structures of Pd(S2COR)2. The utility of Pd(S2COR)2 as precursors for palladium sulphide materials

    Y. S. Tan, S. N. A. Halim, K. C. Molloy, A. L. Sudlow, A. Otero-de-la-Roza and E. R. T. Tiekink, CrystEngComm, 2016, 18, 1105
    DOI: 10.1039/C5CE02126J

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