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Issue 8, 2015
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In vitro reconstitution of α-pyrone ring formation in myxopyronin biosynthesis

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Abstract

Myxopyronins are α-pyrone antibiotics produced by the terrestrial bacterium Myxococcus fulvus Mx f50 and possess antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. They target the bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) “switch region” as non-competitive inhibitors and display no cross-resistance to the established RNAP inhibitor rifampicin. Recent analysis of the myxopyronin biosynthetic pathway led to the hypothesis that this secondary metabolite is produced from two separate polyketide parts, which are condensed by the stand-alone ketosynthase MxnB. Using in vitro assays we show that MxnB catalyzes a unique condensation reaction forming the α-pyrone ring of myxopyronins from two activated acyl chains in form of their β-keto intermediates. MxnB is able to accept thioester substrates coupled to either N-acetylcysteamine (NAC) or a specific carrier protein (CP). The turnover rate of MxnB for substrates bound to CP was 12-fold higher than for NAC substrates, demonstrating the importance of protein–protein interactions in polyketide synthase (PKS) systems. The crystal structure of MxnB reveals the enzyme to be an unusual member of the ketosynthase group capable of binding and condensing two long alkyl chains bound to carrier proteins. The geometry of the two binding tunnels supports the biochemical data and allows us to propose an order of reaction, which is supported by the identification of novel myxopyronin congeners in the extract of the producer strain. Insights into the mechanism of this unique condensation reaction do not only expand our knowledge regarding the thiolase enzyme family but also opens up opportunities for PKS bioengineering to achieve directed structural modifications.

Graphical abstract: In vitro reconstitution of α-pyrone ring formation in myxopyronin biosynthesis

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Publication details

The article was received on 20 Mar 2015, accepted on 14 May 2015 and first published on 18 May 2015


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C5SC01013F
Citation: Chem. Sci., 2015,6, 5076-5085
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    In vitro reconstitution of α-pyrone ring formation in myxopyronin biosynthesis

    H. Sucipto, J. H. Sahner, E. Prusov, S. C. Wenzel, R. W. Hartmann, J. Koehnke and R. Müller, Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 5076
    DOI: 10.1039/C5SC01013F

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