Jump to main content
Jump to site search

Issue 4, 2015
Previous Article Next Article

Ruthenium-caged antisense morpholinos for regulating gene expression in zebrafish embryos

Author affiliations

Abstract

Photochemical approaches afford high spatiotemporal control over molecular structure and function, for broad applications in materials and biological science. Here, we present the first example of a visible light responsive ruthenium-based photolinker, Ru(bipyridine)2(3-ethynylpyridine)2 (RuBEP), which was reacted stoichiometrically with a 25mer DNA or morpholino (MO) oligonucleotide functionalized with 3′ and 5′ terminal azides, via Cu(I)-mediated [3+2] Huisgen cycloaddition reactions. RuBEP-caged circular morpholinos (Ru-MOs) targeting two early developmental zebrafish genes, chordin and notail, were synthesized and tested in vivo. One-cell-stage zebrafish embryos microinjected with Ru-MO and incubated in the dark for 24 h developed normally, consistent with caging, whereas irradiation at 450 nm dissociated one 3-ethynylpyridine ligand (Φ = 0.33) and uncaged the MO to achieve gene knockdown. As demonstrated, Ru photolinkers provide a versatile method for controlling structure and function of biopolymers.

Graphical abstract: Ruthenium-caged antisense morpholinos for regulating gene expression in zebrafish embryos

Back to tab navigation

Supplementary files

Publication details

The article was received on 23 Dec 2014, accepted on 29 Jan 2015 and first published on 29 Jan 2015


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C4SC03990D
Citation: Chem. Sci., 2015,6, 2342-2346
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
  •   Request permissions

    Ruthenium-caged antisense morpholinos for regulating gene expression in zebrafish embryos

    J. C. Griepenburg, T. L. Rapp, P. J. Carroll, J. Eberwine and I. J. Dmochowski, Chem. Sci., 2015, 6, 2342
    DOI: 10.1039/C4SC03990D

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence. Material from this article can be used in other publications provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material and it is not used for commercial purposes.

    Reproduced material should be attributed as follows:

    • For reproduction of material from NJC:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from PCCP:
      [Original citation] - Published by the PCCP Owner Societies.
    • For reproduction of material from PPS:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) on behalf of the European Society for Photobiology, the European Photochemistry Association, and RSC.
    • For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals:
      [Original citation] - Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry.

    Information about reproducing material from RSC articles with different licences is available on our Permission Requests page.

Search articles by author

Spotlight

Advertisements