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Issue 3, 2015
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Graphene-iron oxide nanocomposite (GINC): an efficient catalyst for ammonium perchlorate (AP) decomposition and burn rate enhancer for AP based composite propellant

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Abstract

A facile and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of nano-sized iron oxide (Fe2O3) decorated graphene (GINC) hybrid by ultrasonication via microwave irradiation has been developed. During this process, nano-sized Fe2O3 particles with a size of approximately 20–30 nm were uniformly decorated over a graphene sheet. The nanohybrid was characterized by XRD, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and Raman mapping. To study the enhancement of catalytic activity of iron oxide by preparing GINC, several AP based compositions containing 1–5 weight% GINC were made and characterized through simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). Along with this, formulations with other catalysts with 1–5 weight% concentrations were also prepared and evaluated. Experimental results showed that GINC with 5 weight% concentration was considerably more effective as compared to other compositions. To further extend this application as a burn rate enhancer in composite propellants, several formulations of composite propellants containing 1 part of different burn rate enhancers, such as Fe2O3, nano-sized Fe2O3 and GINC, were prepared and evaluated using theoretical prediction, viscosity, ballistic properties, sensitivity parameter and thermophysical properties. To quantify the burn rate enhancement in the presence of GINC, burn rate measurement, STA, DSC and activation energy calculation were performed. The results show that the burn rate of propellant increases from micron-sized Fe2O3 (30% increases) to nano-sized Fe2O3 (37% increase). In the presence of GINC, a significant increase (52%) in burn rate is achieved. In GINC, effective iron content is about 50% as compared to nano- and micron-sized Fe2O3. Hence, GINC was found to be an excellent burn rate modifier for an advanced AP based propellant system.

Graphical abstract: Graphene-iron oxide nanocomposite (GINC): an efficient catalyst for ammonium perchlorate (AP) decomposition and burn rate enhancer for AP based composite propellant

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Sep 2014, accepted on 14 Nov 2014 and first published on 14 Nov 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4RA10812D
Citation: RSC Adv., 2015,5, 1950-1960
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    Graphene-iron oxide nanocomposite (GINC): an efficient catalyst for ammonium perchlorate (AP) decomposition and burn rate enhancer for AP based composite propellant

    A. Dey, J. Athar, P. Varma, H. Prasant, A. K. Sikder and S. Chattopadhyay, RSC Adv., 2015, 5, 1950
    DOI: 10.1039/C4RA10812D

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