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Issue 3, 2015
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A hydrogel pen for electrochemical reaction and its applications for 3D printing

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Abstract

A hydrogel pen consisting of a microscopic pyramid containing an electrolyte offers a localized electroactive area on the nanometer scale via controlled contact of the apex with a working electrode. The hydrogel pen merges the fine control of atomic force microscopy with non-linear diffusion of an ultramicroelectrode, producing a faradaic current that depends on the small electroactive area. The theoretical and experimental investigations of the mass transport behavior within the hydrogel reveal that the steady-state current from the faradaic reaction is linearly proportional to the deformed length of the hydrogel pen by contact, i.e. signal transduction of deformation to an electrochemical signal, which enables the fine control of the electroactive area in the nanometer-scale regime. Combined with electrodeposition, localized electrochemistry of the hydrogel pen results in the ability to fabricate small sizes (110 nm in diameter), tall heights (up to 30 μm), and arbitrary structures, thereby indicating an additive process in 3 dimensions by localized electrodeposition.

Graphical abstract: A hydrogel pen for electrochemical reaction and its applications for 3D printing

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Publication details

The article was received on 14 Oct 2014, accepted on 15 Nov 2014 and first published on 20 Nov 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4NR06041E
Author version available: Download Author version (PDF)
Citation: Nanoscale, 2015,7, 994-1001
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    A hydrogel pen for electrochemical reaction and its applications for 3D printing

    H. Kang, S. Hwang and J. Kwak, Nanoscale, 2015, 7, 994
    DOI: 10.1039/C4NR06041E

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