Droplet-based electro-coalescence for probing threshold disjoining pressure
In this work, we investigate the coalescence of emulsion droplets in a controlled electric field. Two contacting droplets stabilized by surfactants can be forced to coalesce into a combined one when the applied voltage is above a critical value. The critical voltages change with the types, concentrations of surfactants and temperature. By exploring the drainage of a thin oil film trapped between emulsions, we interpret that the coalescence occurs as the electric compression overcomes the disjoining pressure barrier and squeezes the film to a critical thickness. Based on this, we have devised an approach to probe the threshold disjoining pressure which can help predict the emulsion stability and surfactant efficacy quantitatively. We have confirmed the validity of our approach for measuring the threshold disjoining pressure by comparing the result with other proven tests that involve centrifugation and thermal heating. Our approach is simple, reliable and robust in predicting emulsion stability and will facilitate the design of emulsion-based formulations by accelerating the testing of emulsion stability.