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Issue 10, 2015
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A zinc–iron redox-flow battery under $100 per kW h of system capital cost

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Abstract

Redox flow batteries (RFBs) are one of the most promising scalable electricity-storage systems to address the intermittency issues of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for RFBs to be economically viable and widely employed is their low cost. Here we present a new zinc–iron (Zn–Fe) RFB based on double-membrane triple-electrolyte design that is estimated to have under $100 per kW h system capital cost. Such a low cost is achieved by a combination of inexpensive redox materials (i.e., zinc and iron) and high cell performance (e.g., 676 mW cm−2 power density). Engineering of the cell structure is found to be critical to enable the high power density. Our cost model shows that a Zn–Fe RFB demonstrates the lowest cost among some notable RFBs and could reach the 2023 cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy ($150 per kW h).

Graphical abstract: A zinc–iron redox-flow battery under $100 per kW h of system capital cost

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Publication details

The article was received on 27 Jul 2015, accepted on 09 Sep 2015 and first published on 09 Sep 2015


Article type: Communication
DOI: 10.1039/C5EE02315G
Citation: Energy Environ. Sci., 2015,8, 2941-2945
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
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    A zinc–iron redox-flow battery under $100 per kW h of system capital cost

    K. Gong, X. Ma, K. M. Conforti, K. J. Kuttler, J. B. Grunewald, K. L. Yeager, M. Z. Bazant, S. Gu and Y. Yan, Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2941
    DOI: 10.1039/C5EE02315G

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