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Issue 45, 2014
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Perovskite processing for photovoltaics: a spectro-thermal evaluation

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Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC), coupled with evolved gas FTIR spectroscopy, has been used to study the changes occurring during, and differences between materials after, the annealing step of mixed-halide methylammonium lead halide perovskites. This is important because, to date, the material is the most efficient light harvester in highly efficient, 3rd generation perovskite photovoltaic devices, and processing plays a significant role in device performance. TGA-FTIR data show only solvent evolution during the annealing step, whilst post-annealing analysis shows that the resulting material still contains a significant amount of residual solvent; however, efficient DMF removal was possible using a silica gel desiccant for a period of 3 days. The data also show that methylammonium halide decomposition does not occur until temperatures well above those used for perovskite processing, suggesting that this is not a significant issue for device manufacture. The absence of a well-defined, reversible tetragonal – cubic phase change around 55 °C in the DSC data of the annealed material, and the presence of HCl in evolved gas analysed following thermal decomposition, demonstrates that CH3NH3I3−xClx does retain some Cl after annealing and does not simply form stoichiometric CH3NH3PbI3 as has been suggested by some workers.

Graphical abstract: Perovskite processing for photovoltaics: a spectro-thermal evaluation

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The article was received on 10 Sep 2014, accepted on 03 Oct 2014 and first published on 07 Oct 2014

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4TA04725G
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Citation: J. Mater. Chem. A, 2014,2, 19338-19346
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    Perovskite processing for photovoltaics: a spectro-thermal evaluation

    A. E. Williams, P. J. Holliman, M. J. Carnie, M. L. Davies, D. A. Worsley and T. M. Watson, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2014, 2, 19338
    DOI: 10.1039/C4TA04725G

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