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Issue 8, 2014
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Bacterial spore detection and analysis using hyperpolarized 129Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR

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Abstract

Previously, we reported hyperpolarized 129Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR techniques for the ultrasensitive (i.e., 1 picomolar) detection of xenon host molecules known as cryptophane. Here, we demonstrate a more general role for Hyper-CEST NMR as a spectroscopic method for probing nanoporous structures, without the requirement for cryptophane or engineered xenon-binding sites. Hyper-CEST 129Xe NMR spectroscopy was employed to detect Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores in solution, and interrogate the layers that comprise their structures. 129Xe–spore samples were selectively irradiated with radiofrequency pulses; the depolarized 129Xe returned to aqueous solution and depleted the 129Xe-water signal, providing measurable contrast. Removal of the outermost spore layers in B. anthracis and B. subtilis (the exosporium and coat, respectively) enhanced 129Xe exchange with the spore interior. Notably, the spores were invisible to hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR direct detection methods, highlighting the lack of high-affinity xenon-binding sites, and the potential for extending Hyper-CEST NMR structural analysis to other biological and synthetic nanoporous structures.

Graphical abstract: Bacterial spore detection and analysis using hyperpolarized 129Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR

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Publication details

The article was received on 24 Apr 2014, accepted on 22 May 2014 and first published on 23 May 2014


Article type: Edge Article
DOI: 10.1039/C4SC01190B
Author version available: Download Author version (PDF)
Citation: Chem. Sci., 2014,5, 3197-3203
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    Bacterial spore detection and analysis using hyperpolarized 129Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR

    Y. Bai, Y. Wang, M. Goulian, A. Driks and I. J. Dmochowski, Chem. Sci., 2014, 5, 3197
    DOI: 10.1039/C4SC01190B

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