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Issue 60, 2014
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Functionalized graphene oxide/phosphoramide oligomer hybrids flame retardant prepared via in situ polymerization for improving the fire safety of polypropylene

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Abstract

A novel strategy based on functionalized graphene oxide (FGO)/phosphoramide oligomer flame retardant was developed to overcome the challenges of the dispersion of graphene sheets in polymer matrix and the ease of the burn-out of graphene under air atmosphere. Graphene oxide (GO) was modified by 4,4-diaminodiphenyl methane (DDM) and then in situ incorporated into phosphoramide oligomer, resulting in a nanocomposite flame retardant (FRs-FGO) containing exfoliated graphene. Subsequently, the flame retardant (FRs-FGO) was incorporated into polypropylene (PP) and simultaneously compatilized with PP-grafted maleic anhydride. TEM results showed that the FGO was dispersed more uniformly in PP than the bare GO because of the strong interfacial interaction and previous exfoliation of FGO in FRs before blending. The thermal properties investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the addition of FRs-FGO into PP resulted in a significant improvement of thermal stability at elevated temperature with higher char yields. Moreover, the crystallization and fire safety properties of PP composites were also improved by the incorporation of FRs-FGO, including increased crystallization temperature (11.4 °C increase), reduced peak heat release rate (66.9% reduction) and decreased total heat release (24.4% decrease), and decreased fire growth rate index (73.0% decrease). The cone results indicated the simple blending of GO with FRs and exhibited less improvement in fire safety properties than FRs-FGO, which resulted from the improved dispersion and thermal stability of FGO sheets. The flame retardant mechanism was because of the shielding effect of FGO and char layers, which could reduce the release of combustible gases and inhibit the mass and heat transfer between the gas phase and condensed phase.

Graphical abstract: Functionalized graphene oxide/phosphoramide oligomer hybrids flame retardant prepared via in situ polymerization for improving the fire safety of polypropylene

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Publication details

The article was received on 19 Oct 2013, accepted on 09 Jun 2014 and first published on 17 Jun 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3RA45945D
Citation: RSC Adv., 2014,4, 31782-31794
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    Functionalized graphene oxide/phosphoramide oligomer hybrids flame retardant prepared via in situ polymerization for improving the fire safety of polypropylene

    B. Yu, X. Wang, X. Qian, W. Xing, H. Yang, L. Ma, Y. Lin, S. Jiang, L. Song, Y. Hu and S. Lo, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 31782
    DOI: 10.1039/C3RA45945D

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