Novel phthalamides containing sulfiliminyl moieties and derivatives as potential ryanodine receptor modulators
To tackle the serious challenge of insect resistance and stricter environmental regulations, innovating a new eco-friendly insecticide is urgently required. A series of new phthalamides containing sulfiliminyl and sulfoximinyl moieties were designed and synthesized. In total, 30 new structures were characterized by 1H NMR spectra and HRMS. The bioassay results indicated that some title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm (Pseudaletia separata Walker) and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)). 4a showed the same larvicidal level as that of commercial flubendiamide as a control. 7a and 9a exhibited outstanding activity against diamondback moth. The LC50 values of 7a and 9a were 8.33 × 10−8 and 2.34 × 10−8 mg L−1, respectively, lower than that of flubendiamide (1.25 × 10−7 mg L−1). The effects of 4a, 7a and 9a on intracellular calcium of neurons from the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) indicated that these title compounds activate the receptor-operated calcium channel. The calcium ions efflux from the calcium store on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when treated with novel compounds. The results of CoMFA calculation showed that N-cyanosulfilimines and N-trifluoroacetylsulfoximines might be of importance to the larvicidal activity. The present work demonstrated that structures containing sulfiliminyl and sulfoximinyl moieties can be considered as lead compounds for the development of new insect ryanodine receptor modulators.