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Issue 21, 2014
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Dual-modality, fluorescent, PLGA encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles for molecular and cellular fluorescence imaging and computed tomography

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Abstract

Reports of molecular and cellular imaging using computed tomography (CT) are rapidly increasing. Many of these reports use gold nanoparticles. Bismuth has similar CT contrast properties to gold while being approximately 1000-fold less expensive. Herein we report the design, fabrication, characterization, and CT and fluorescence imaging properties of a novel, dual modality, fluorescent, polymer encapsulated bismuth nanoparticle construct for computed tomography and fluorescence imaging. We also report on cellular internalization and preliminary in vitro and in vivo toxicity effects of these constructs. 40 nm bismuth(0) nanocrystals were synthesized and encapsulated within 120 nm Poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles by oil-in-water emulsion methodologies. Coumarin-6 was co-encapsulated to impart fluorescence. High encapsulation efficiency was achieved ∼70% bismuth w/w. Particles were shown to internalize within cells following incubation in culture. Bismuth nanocrystals and PLGA encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles exhibited >90% and >70% degradation, respectively, within 24 hours in acidic, lysosomal environment mimicking media and both remained nearly 100% stable in cytosolic/extracellular fluid mimicking media. μCT and clinical CT imaging was performed at multiple X-ray tube voltages to measure concentration dependent attenuation rates as well as to establish the ability to detect the nanoparticles in an ex vivo biological sample. Dual fluorescence and CT imaging is demonstrated as well. In vivo toxicity studies in rats revealed neither clinically apparent side effects nor major alterations in serum chemistry and hematology parameters. Calculations on minimal detection requirements for in vivo targeted imaging using these nanoparticles are presented. Indeed, our results indicate that these nanoparticles may serve as a platform for sensitive and specific targeted molecular CT and fluorescence imaging.

Graphical abstract: Dual-modality, fluorescent, PLGA encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles for molecular and cellular fluorescence imaging and computed tomography

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Publication details

The article was received on 13 Mar 2014, accepted on 31 Aug 2014 and first published on 24 Sep 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4NR01405G
Author version available: Download Author version (PDF)
Citation: Nanoscale, 2014,6, 13104-13112
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    Dual-modality, fluorescent, PLGA encapsulated bismuth nanoparticles for molecular and cellular fluorescence imaging and computed tomography

    E. R. Swy, A. S. Schwartz-Duval, D. D. Shuboni, M. T. Latourette, C. L. Mallet, M. Parys, D. P. Cormode and E. M. Shapiro, Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 13104
    DOI: 10.1039/C4NR01405G

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