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Volume 172, 2014
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In situ Raman study of lithium-ion intercalation into microcrystalline graphite

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The first and second order Raman spectra of graphite during the first lithiation and delithiation have been investigated in a typical lithium-ion battery electrolyte. In situ, real-time Raman measurements under potential control enable the probing of the graphitic negative electrode surface region during ion insertion and extraction. The experimental results reveal the staging formation of a single particle within a free standing graphitic electrode. In particular, the in situ behaviour of the double resonance 2D band during the lithiation and delithiation of graphitic carbon has not been previously reported. The 2D band was observed to shift from 2681 to 2611 cm−1 and the band shape transformed into a single Lorentzian from 0.24 to 0.15 V vs. Li/Li+, providing further information on the electronic structure and C–C bonding of stage 3 and 4 graphite intercalation compounds. The behaviour of the 2D band is in keeping with the Daumas–Hérold model of electrochemically derived intercalation, where the graphene layers are flexible and deform around domains of intercalating lithium ions.

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Publication details

The article was received on 23 Apr 2014, accepted on 08 May 2014 and first published on 08 May 2014

Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00079J
Citation: Faraday Discuss., 2014,172, 223-237
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
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    In situ Raman study of lithium-ion intercalation into microcrystalline graphite

    C. Sole, N. E. Drewett and L. J. Hardwick, Faraday Discuss., 2014, 172, 223
    DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00079J

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