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Volume 171, 2014
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Approaches to time-resolved diffraction using an XFEL

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Abstract

We describe several schemes for time-resolved imaging of molecular motion using a free-electron laser (XFEL), in response to the many challenges and opportunities which XFEL radiation has created for accurate time-resolved measurement of structure. For pump–probe experiments using crystals, the problem of recording full Bragg reflections (not partials) in each shot arises. Two solutions, the use of the large bandwith which necesarily results from using attosecond pulses, and the use the coherent convergent beam mode are suggested. We also show that with attosecond recording times shorter than the temporal coherence time, Bragg reflections excited by different wavelengths from different reflections can interfere, providing structure factor phase information. For slower processes, a mixing jet sample-delivery device is described to allow snapshot solution scattering during molecular reactions on the microsecond scale. For optically excited membrane proteins, we suggest the use of the lipid cubic phase sample delivery device operating at atmospheric pressure. The use of two-color and split-and-delay schemes is suggested for improved accuracy in the Monte-Carlo method of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX).

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Publication details

The article was received on 27 Feb 2014, accepted on 25 Mar 2014 and first published on 25 Mar 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00025K
Citation: Faraday Discuss., 2014,171, 429-438
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY license
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    Approaches to time-resolved diffraction using an XFEL

    J. C. H. Spence, Faraday Discuss., 2014, 171, 429
    DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00025K

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