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Issue 5, 2014
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Nitrile-assistant eutectic electrolytes for cryogenic operation of lithium ion batteries at fast charges and discharges

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Abstract

The charge/discharge characteristics of lithium ion batteries at low temperature (LT = −20 °C) are enhanced by using ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes with the help of assistant solvents of nitriles. Conventional liquid electrolytes (e.g. a mixture of EC and dimethyl carbonate (DMC), abbreviated as LED) cannot support a satisfactory capacity at low temperature as well as at high rates even if electric vehicles require low-temperature operation. Introducing propionitrile or butyronitrile (Pn or Bn) into LED (resulting in LEDPn or LEDBn) as a co-solvent increases significantly the high-rate capacities at −20 °C. For example, LEDPn delivers 62% of the available capacity at 1 C and 46% at 3 C with a 2.7 V cut-off while the control LED provides just 6% and 4% at the same rates. Successful operation at −20 °C with nitrile-assistant electrolytes results from high ionic conductivity, low viscosity and freezing point depression caused by the eutectic behavior of the carbonates (EC/DMC) and Pn. Based on the phase diagram of Pn with EC/DMC, we expect a meaningful battery operation up to −110 °C, probably lower, at the eutectic composition.

Graphical abstract: Nitrile-assistant eutectic electrolytes for cryogenic operation of lithium ion batteries at fast charges and discharges

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Publication details

The article was received on 09 Sep 2013, accepted on 30 Jan 2014 and first published on 30 Jan 2014


Article type: Paper
DOI: 10.1039/C3EE43029D
Citation: Energy Environ. Sci., 2014,7, 1737-1743
  • Open access: Creative Commons BY-NC license
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    Nitrile-assistant eutectic electrolytes for cryogenic operation of lithium ion batteries at fast charges and discharges

    Y. Cho, Y. Kim, D. Sung, M. Seo and H. Song, Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, 7, 1737
    DOI: 10.1039/C3EE43029D

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